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Referencing: Home

Always reference your research resources

When submitting academic work for assessment, it is important to provide full details of all of the sources you consulted during its preparation. The use of proper citation and referencing within your work will:

  • help you to avoid plagiarism
  • enable your readers to follow your line of research and locate the sources that you've used
  • distinguish your ideas from those of others
  • acknowledge the work of others
  • demonstrate the scope of your reading

 

My Learning Essentials Resources - University of Manchester Library

My Learning Essentials resources are developed by The University of Manchester Library, and are licensed under CC BY-NC 3.0. My Learning Essentials © The University of Manchester.

Referencing Styles

A range of referencing styles are used within the University, so ensure you check your subject handbook for the preferred style for your College/subject.Once you have established which style you should be using, it is important to be consistent in its application.

The major styles are highlighted here, with links to online support, plus specific guidance on audiovisual citations, compiled by BUFVC for referencing moving image and sound.

Top Tip

The Academic Skills support materials within ELE provide great support on the learning skills that are required for success as a student at the University. Most useful in this context are:

  Understanding Academic Honesty & Plagiarism

  Skills for Referencing

 

APA citation style refers to the rules and conventions usedby the American Psychological Association for documenting sources used in a research paper. APA style requires both in-text citations and a reference list. 

APA Style Examples from Monash University.

BSI is the UK National Standards body. A range of BSI standards and supporting material relating to referencing are available including:

BS 5605:1990 Recommendations for citing and referencing published material

BS ISO 690:2010 Information and documentation. Guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information resources.

BS ISO 690-2:1997 Information and documentation. Bibliographic references. Electronic documents or parts thereof 

BS 6371: 1983 Recommendations for citation of unpublished documents. 

All are available online via British Standards Online 

Cambridge University Press style manual is preferred by the Department of History.

The Chicago Manual of Style Online : quick guide to the Chicago style with worked examples

Chicago - Guide to Referencing: a comprehensive guide from UWE, Bristol on the application of the Chicago style to a range of sources.

Guide to Citation in the Harvard Style: a guide from Bournemouth University.

Harvard - Guide to Referencing: a comprehensive guide from UWE, Bristol on how to create citations and bibliographic references using the Harvard referencing system. It also provides examples of paraphrasing and using quotations.

Harvard System of Referencing Guide: a detailed guide written by library staff at Anglia Ruskin University.

References: Harvard Style: a comprehensive guide from Leeds University on how to set out references within your work using the Harvard refencing system.

MHRA Style Guide: available as a download, this standard textbook outlines everything to do with the MHRA referencing style.

MLA - Guide to Referencing: a comprehensive guide from UWE, Bristol on the application of the MLA style to a range of sources.

Vancouver style examples from Monash University.

Vancouver referencing guide from Imperial College London

New media like YouTube, podcasts and vidcasts have led to the development of separate rules for citing moving image and sound sources. See the British Universities Film & Video Council’s guidelines for examples.

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Referencing Software

There are various referencing software packages available to help you keep track of the resources you have used. Online support is avaiable to help you make the most of the packages.  

For comparisons of these and other software, please see the Researcher Briefing: Reference Management paper, produced by the University's CASCADE Project. Wikipedia also has an up to date comparison page.

Choose the tool that is right for you, but remember that although these tools can help you manage your citations and build your bibliography, you must always check the accuracy of the automatically generated references.  They are useful tools but not infallible.

It is important that you develop your understanding of the referencing style used in your discipline as this will enable you to make a quality control check and satisfy yourself that the generated references meet the guidelines you must adhere to.  Some of the tools rely on 'scraping' data from webpages to produce references so there is room for errors and inaccuracies to be pulled in to your reference library.  Familiarise yourself with the requirements for the relevant referencing standard and then always check all references for accuracy.

EndNote is a software package that enables you to compile and manage your references, and to use them to automatically create in-text citations and bibliographies as you work on your Word documents.

There are a number of different versions of Endnote

  • Endnote X7 desktop and online - the fully featured version
  • Endnote Online Premium - a premium online version available to all academic users with access to the Web of Science
  • Endnote Basic - a free basic account accessible to all.

 Use this comparison chart to help you choose the version that best suits your needs. 


EndNote X7 desktop includes over 6,000 referencing styles, including all the major referencing systems such as Harvard and MLA, and the preferred styles for the leading academic journals. It is therefore very easy to create citations and bibliographies in the correct style for your purposes. EndNoteX7 dekstop is installed on the public cluster PCs across our campuses. It is covered by the University’s EndNote Site Licence, which allows installation of the software on any University-owned PC at no further charge per copy. Students may purchase personal copies of EndNote at a discounted rate by logging into IT Services list of Frequently used software and following the instructions online.

Easy to follow instructions are available to help you set up an Endnote X7, Premium or Basic online account.


Training and Help

Comprehensive online help and training is available from Endnote.  Make use of all the various materials to build your skills and experience as you learn the software.

  • Get Started Guides: for PC and Mac.  Use these if you are new to Endnote and want an introduction to the software
  • Training Videos: Watch and learn, from bite-size tips to full courses. 100+ videos are available via YouTube 
  • Quick Reference Guides: Handy guides to get you up and running on dedsktop and online versions
  • Endnote x7 user guide: Comprehensive online manual which will guide you through the many features of Endnote X7 desktop
  • Training Calendar: You can register for an online training demo (or watch a recording later).  This is ideal if you want to be talked through the software.  Training courses run throughout the year.  if a date/time is not convenient you can register and catch the recording later. 
  • Questions? If the online resources don't answer your question you can ask the Endnote technical experts for help by phone or online form.  You can also search the knowledgebase to find an answer.
  • Endnote FAQs: Answers to frequently asked questions are posted online.

 

Finding Full Text Authentication 

EndNote can attempt to locate full text files from these sources on the Web (works best on campus).  If found, EndNote downloads and attaches the files to the references.

You should check the Full Text settings and add the authentication information below:

Endnote Preferences Full Text Authenication

Reference Manager is produced by Thomson Reuters, just like Endnote.  It is a powerful bibliographic solution for workgroups, networks and collaborative projects. But now that EndNote offers library sharing for up to 14 people Thomson Reuters recommend moving to Endnote in order to gain all the benefits of sharing plus many additional features.

comparison of Endnote and Reference Manager is available to illustrate the overlaps and unique features of both services.

Reference Manager is covered by the University’s Reference Manager Site Licence, which allows installation on any University-owned PC at no further charge per copy. Academic Services covers the cost of this licence centrally. Installation is not permitted on personally owned PCs. However, students can purchase a copy to install on their personal PC.

To find out more, please contact the IT Helpdesk via SID.  A support call will be logged for you and your enquiry will be assigned to an appropriate advisor.

Online training materials are available from Thomson Reuters including Getting started guides and online tutorials and webinars.

You can also use their Support site to ask for technical help, check out FAQs or search their Knowledgebase.

Some researchers have created alternatives to the commercial packages, many of which are free:

Mendeley - is both a free reference manager and an academic social network designed to help researchers find and work with collaborators. Although you do have to download the program, it is free and web-based. This means you are not restricted to working on any single computer and have access to your data from anywhere in the world as it is stored remotely. Although you can link to any of the usual sources for your bibliographic data, the program extracts metadata from any documents you download and allows you to search the full text of PDFs you have collected. Mendeley sits as an icon on your desktop. There is a Mendeley Quick Start Guide available.

Zotero is designed specifically to work with the Mozilla Firefox browser. This guide to using Zotero was originally created for a British Library course.

Citeulike is a web based tool which helps researchers gather, collect and share research papers. When you register you will be asked if you want to link with your Facebook account. A useful feature associated with this service is current issues, which allows you to browse the tables of contents of over 13,000 journal titles.

Papers -  (Mentekosj) was developed by two PhD researchers as a Mac-based tool using a similar approach to iTunes, the music provider. Versions of Papers are also available from the iTunes App Store for use with iPads and iPhones and a PC client is also now available. You can trial this software for free for 30 days, but you do need to pay to use it after that.

RefBase - (Web Reference Database) is an online research management tool that allows users to create personal bibliographic databases and use them for a variety of research activities. References are quickly and easily imported from text files or online databases and records can be formatted in hundreds of output styles from APA, MLA, Chicago etc.

Users of Microsoft Word 2007 and above can format their citations in several styles, including APA, Chicago, MLA and Harvard. Look at Word's help function for guidance.

You can also use the Microsoft office guidance for support, or watch the YouTube video to see it in action

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