Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Finding and Evaluating Information Sources - HRM: 4) Evaluating information sources

Not all information is equal!

It is crucial that you take steps to ensure the information that you rely on and include in your work is of a good academic quality. Inaccurate, false or misleading information can undermine the points that you want to make and weaken your arguments. 

Critical evaluation is especially important with non academic sources (e.g. news sources).

A brief overview of relevance and academic quality issues is provided below.

A separate Evaluating Information Sources tutorial is also available and offers the opportunity to engage more deeply in academic quality issues.

Evaluation criteria: using the CRAAP test

The ability to evaluate the academic quality of the information you find is a core aspect of scholarly research. 

This is particularly important when searching online and using tools like Google. While textbooks and academic journals will likely have gone through a rigorous review and editing process, there are no such guarantees for much of the information you can find online.

The CRAAP test provides simple criteria for judging the academic quality of information. By asking some questions of the sources you encounter, you can successfully boost the quality of information you use in your work.

The five main CRAAP test criteria are:

  • Currency
  • Relevancy
  • Accuracy
  • Authority
  • Purpose

In an age of misinformation and fake-news, the ability to  evaluate the quality of the information we find has never been more important

Currency: the timeliness of the information

  • When was the information published or posted?
  • Has the information been revised or updated?
  • Does your topic require current information, or will older sources work as well?
  • If an online source, are the web links functional?

Relevancy: the importance of the information for your needs

  • Does the information relate to your topic or help answer your question?
  • Who is the intended audience for this information?
  • Is the information at an appropriate academic level?
  • Have you looked at a variety of sources before determining this is one you will use?
  • Would you be comfortable citing this source in your research paper?

Authority: the source of the information 

  • Who is the author/publisher/source/sponsor?
  • What are the author's credentials or organisational affiliations?
  • Is the author qualified to write on the topic?
  • Is there contact information, such as a publisher or email address?
  • Does the URL reveal anything about the author or source? examples: .com .edu .gov .org .net

Accuracy: the reliability and correctness of the content

  • Is the information supported by evidence (e.g. references, supporting sources, research data)?
  • Has the information been reviewed or refereed?
  • Can you verify any of the information in another source or from personal knowledge?
  • Are there spelling, grammar or typographical errors?

Purpose: the reason the information exists

  • What is the purpose of the information? Is it to inform, teach, sell, entertain or persuade?
  • Do the authors/sponsors make their intentions or purpose clear?
  • Is the information fact, opinion or propaganda?
  • Does the point of view appear objective and impartial?
  • Are there political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional or personal biases?

To help you evaluate sources effectively in your future projects, download this Evaluation Checklist. You can use the checklist to help determine if the information you find passes the CRAAP test criteria.

Activity: applying evaluation criteria

This activity provides an opportunity for you to put the CRAAP test into practice.

Imagine you are conducting research into the following topic: 

The changing role of technology and AI in the employment market.

Take a look at the source below and consider some of the key questions from the CRAAP test when answering the questions in the box on the right.


Source: Applying for your next job may be an automated nightmare.

Activity: assessing source quality

Contact Us