Not all information is equal!
It is crucial that you take steps to ensure the information that you rely on and include in your work is of a good academic quality. Inaccurate, false or misleading information can undermine the points that you want to make and weaken your arguments.
Critical evaluation is especially important with non academic sources (e.g. news sources).
This page highlights a selection of criteria that you can use to help judge the quality of information that you encounter and also provides some tips for conducting effective searching online.
For more information on this subject, a separate Evaluating Information Sources tutorial is also available.
The ability to evaluate the academic quality of the information you find is a core aspect of scholarly research.
This is particularly important when searching online and using tools like Google. While textbooks and academic journals will likely have gone through a rigorous review and editing process, there are no such guarantees for much of the information you can find online.
The CRAAP test provides simple criteria for judging the academic quality of information. By asking some questions of the sources you encounter, you can successfully boost the quality of information you use in your work.
The five main CRAAP test criteria are:
In an age of misinformation and fake-news, the ability to evaluate the quality of the information we find has never been more important
Currency: the timeliness of the information
Relevancy: the importance of the information for your needs
Authority: the source of the information
Accuracy: the reliability and correctness of the content
Purpose: the reason the information exists
To help you evaluate sources effectively in your future projects, download this Evaluation Checklist. You can use the checklist to help determine if the information you find passes the CRAAP test criteria.
Official local and national tourism websites can be great sources of data and analysis for the locations you are researching.
Google allows you to use a 'site' operator to run a more targeted search. The operator allows you to focus your search to specific types of website, or even specific websites.
Include a 'site' operator to your search by adding site:[domain] to the end of your search.
In the example below, I have added site:gov.my to the end of my search. This will limit my search specifically to official Malaysian government websites, rather than the whole internet.
Examples of other 'site' operators include:
You can use the 'Site' operator to focus on particular national domains; e.g. Site:nz = New Zealand etc.
You can also use the 'Site' operator to find individual websites; e.g. Site:un.org for the United Nations etc.