Once you have a research question, consider what sort of information/materials you need access to. You are likely to use a combination of different types of resources in order to fully explore your topic.
It is worth thinking about this before you jump in and start searching; if you can pinpoint the sort of information you require, you can target your searching in the appropriate place.
Information Sources are typically categorised into three broad categories based on their proximity to original source material:
1. Primary Sources
These are first hand accounts or records of activity as they happened or were created, without any subsequent interpretation or commentary.
A wealth of primary sources are available to you at the University, many in digital format. Explore the Primary Sources LibGuide to find relevant online collections as well as guidance on using primary sources.
These provide interpretation, commentary or analysis of other sources. They are typically written after the event or activity being discussed, and are not based on direct observation of involvement.
Organisation, categorisation, index or collection of primary and secondary sources. These sources typically list or collate other sources, rather than adding additional commentary or observations.
Many of these resources are now available in digital format - find out more on the Online Reference Resources LibGuide.
Research material can be drawn from from a wide range of different research resources. As well as using traditional sources such as books and journal articles, you may want to use news items, reviews, performances or audiovisual material.
Some materials such as scholarly books and journals go through a rigorous 'peer review' process where they are analysed by experts in the field for reliability and quality. However, it can be more difficult to establish the provenance of other sources of information - for example anyone can create and disseminate information via the web.
Click on the different tabs to explore some of the information sources available to you.
Books, such as textbooks, are good for providing an overview of a topic. They undergo an editorial process and are usually written by experts in the subject or professional authors.
You can use the bibliographies to identify other works that relate to tha area you are interested in.
Many books at the University are available in digital format as e-books.
Books take time to produce, so may not always contain the most up to date information.
Journals can provide you with up to date discussion of research topics as they are published more quickly and regularly than books e.g. weekly, monthly, quarterly or annually, depending on the publication.
Journal articles are written by researchers and experts in their field.
Scholarly or academic journals go through a "peer review" process, where a panel of experts assesses the article before it is approved for publication, giving you reassurance that the information is reliable.
Like books, the more scholarly articles also contain reference lists or bibliographies so that you can broaden your research by following up leads to related publications.
The majority of the journals available via the library are in digital format. This means they are available to you any time, any place and ensures you can access the latest journal issues as soon as they are published.
Plays can be accessed in a variety of formats such as playscripts or playtexts, or recordings of performances.
Some of the key collections of plays can be found below. Some of these collections will be looked at in more detail later in this tutorial.
Recordings of performances
Both playscripts and recordings of performances
Theatre and production reviews can be useful sources to determine the strengths and weaknesses of a performance. Historical reviews can provide enlightening insights into the concerns and contexts of the period in which they were written.
Theatre and production reviews can be found in the following sources:
Contemporary and recent productions
TV, film, sound and image sources can all be important research resources. See the Using Images LibGuide for guidance on selecting and using images in your teaching, studies and research.
The papers that researchers deliver at conference and symposia around the world are often published after the event, in print and/or digital format. They may be published as a book, in a special issue of a journal or on an organisations' website. Some may not be published at all.
Published conference papers are often the first time that research findings are publicly presented and debated so they can be sources of cutting edge research.
Many are subject to peer review, just like scholarly journals, which acts as a quality assurance check.
Subject databases may index major conference proceedings as an aid to their discovery. The following tools will also enable you to find conference papers and proceedings in your area.
Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Index
Web of Science indexes the most significant conferences and seminars since 1990 in the Science and Social Sciences & Humanities. Select the proceedings indexes from More Settings on the Web of Science search screen.
Use the Google Scholar search tool to find conference papers and information that hsa been indexed on the web. Search for your research area, add conference and a year if you wish to pinpoint a particular period.
News sources can be invaluable research resources. There are various types of news sources you can choose from, including:
They provide contemporaneous accounts of events as they emerge and unfold, affording a snapshot of developments at a point in time.
By using news archive services, you can also engage in historical research by tracing commentary on issues over time, to identify and track changing political, economic and social trends. For example, when did global warning first emerge as a 'hot topic' in the press? Who are the major pressure groups and organisations debating this agenda? How has terminology in this area developed and changed over time?, etc.
The availability of news resources online allows for very effective and comprehensive searching, in a way that was impossible with print or microfilm / microfiche editions of the newspapers when research could be a very long, laborious and somewhat haphazard process.
There is a huge amount of news research material available to you at the University. Explore the Using news resources for research LibGuide to find out more and access the news resources via the A-Z Database List.
They can be really useful resources as you begin your background research into a topic, before you move on to more in depth research via your Subject databases.
In many cases, these resources are now available in digital format, allowing you to easily and quickly access the information you need.
Click here if you'd like to find out more.
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for a higher degree or professional qualification, presenting the author’s research and findings. Theses are extremely valuable sources of information, as they consist of substantial primary research in specialised topics and provide very detailed data and analysis.
They will also have extensive bibliographies, detailing the published literature on the given research topic.
Use the Finding Theses Quick Guide to learn more about tracking down theses in your field of study both at the University of Exeter and elsewhere.
You can access dissertation and theses databases via the A to Z Database List. The recommended databases are:
However, the sheer volume of material available means that sometime it can be difficult to find the information you want. Most search engines offer advanced search options that allow you to refine your search i.e. Google Advanced Search. If you want to find academic materials, search using Google Scholar.
When using material from the internet, you need to exercise caution as anyone can publish information on the web so the quality and reliability of the information is highly variable. Always evaluate the sources to ensure the material is trustworthy, accurate and authoritative.
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