Journal articles can be some of the most authoritative sources of academic information. However, it can sometimes seem challenging to find articles that are relevant to your research project.
To get the best results from academic databases you need to input effective searches.
When building an effective search, it is useful to think of this as a three step process:
This section looks at these steps in more detail, before giving you an opportunity to use a databases.
There are two key databases that you can use to find academic journal articles for your project.
The boxes below highlight the three important steps to using these resources effectively; before giving you the chance to try ProQuest Business Premium Collection yourself.
Think carefully about suitable keywords and synonyms (alternative words that have a similar meaning) that will enable you to find manageable amounts of relevant material - not so many results that they are unmanageable and cause information overload, or so few that you retrieve insufficient information for you needs.
As with mapping out your research concepts, you may find it useful to adopt similar techniques - e.g. brainstorming, words lists or mind maps to generate your keywords
This video provides tips on how you can identify keywords that you can use in your searching.
This example illustrates how you might
1. pick out key terms from a research topic
2 break them down into keywords, alternative terms, variations and subject specific terminology that can be used for searching
It is possible to use a number of different keywords or search terms in a single search, by using operators.
Operators link your search terms and define the relationship between them.
This enables more accurate searching and therefore more relevant results being returned. It also saves you time as you don't have to carry out numerous similar searches where just one or two search terms are changed each time.
Fig. 1 Fig. 2
The three most commonly used operators are AND, OR, NOT. These are known as Boolean operators. They can be used to broaden or narrow a search and to exclude unwanted search terms and concepts.
You can type these operators in between your search terms (Fig. 1) or you can use the drop down options in the Advanced Search option (Fig. 2). Look at the help pages on the database you want to use for specific guidance.
This video provides guidance on how you can combine your keywords to construct effective database searches.
You can use search techniques to help improve your searching. By applying these techniques, you can increase or reduce your search results as required, making it easier to access to the right materials.
Truncation is a technique that broadens your search to include various word endings and spellings.
To use truncation, enter the root of a word and put the truncation symbol at the end.
The database will return results that include any ending of that root word.
The asterisk * symbol is most commonly used for truncation. However, check out the help screens as !, ?, or # may also be used.
entrepreneur* will find entrepreneurs, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial etc.
Global* will find global, globalise, globalize, globalisation, globalization etc.
Use it with care to avoid finding too many alternatives.
For more, see the Search tips guide.
Phrase searching is the most limiting technique as it is used to specify that your terms must appear next to each other, and in the order you specify.
Phrase searching is commonly achieved by surrounding your phrase with quotation marks.
Always check the Database Help screens, as some databases may use different symbols.
Phrase searching examples:
"Private Finance Initiative"
"Corporate social responsibility"
For more, see the Search tips guide.